Liposomes and nanoparticles are both used in the delivery of therapeutic agents, but they have distinct structures and properties.

Liposomes are spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They are biocompatible and can encapsulate both hydrophilic (in the core) and hydrophobic (within the lipid bilayer) drugs, making them versatile carriers for a variety of therapeutic agents. Liposomes fuse with cellular membranes, facilitating the delivery of their payload directly into the cell’s interior. This property is particularly useful for delivering drugs that target intracellular pathways.

Nanoparticles, on the other hand, encompass a broader category of nano-sized particles that can be made from a variety of materials, including lipids, polymers, metals, and ceramics. Their core structure can be solid or hollow, and they can carry therapeutic agents either encapsulated within the particle or attached to the particle’s surface. Nanoparticles can be designed to release their payload in response to specific triggers, such as changes in pH or temperature, or the presence of certain enzymes.

In the case of Diversa’s RNA reagent, the term “nanoparticle” is used to describe the delivery system, which has a more structured core designed for the efficient encapsulation and protection of RNA molecules. This system provides targeted delivery and controlled release of RNA into cells, enhancing the stability and bioavailability of RNA molecules for gene therapy, gene editing, or mRNA vaccine applications.

Unlike traditional liposomes, Diversa’s RNA reagent utilize a more defined and  more stable nanoparticle structure that enhances cellular uptake and endosomal escape, ensuring that the RNA payload reaches its target within the cell more efficiently. This involves the use of a patented nanoparticle formulations that is optimized for RNA delivery, offering advantages such as higher loading capacity, improved protection of RNA from degradation, and enhanced targeting capabilities.